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>   These June sucker, collected during the spawning season in 1984, were being held overnight in cages in the Provo River for use in a captive breeding program. They were found clubbed to death the following morning.

The June sucker was federally listed as an endangered species with critical habitat on April 30, 1986. The lower 4.9 miles of the Provo River was identified as critical habitat because this was the only known spawning location for the species. Factors contributing to its federal listing included localized distribution, failure to recruit individuals to the adult life stage, and threats to the continued survival of June sucker. The US Fish and Wildlife Service designated June sucker as a species with a high risk of extinction, a low recovery potential, and the presence of conflict. Nonnative fish, habitat alternations, and water development and operations were the primary threats to June sucker at the time it was listed.